Saturday, March 21, 2020
A Profile of Byzantine Emperor Alexios Komnenos Alexius Comnenus, also known asÃ Alexios Komnenos, is perhaps best known for seizing the throne from Nicephorus III and founding the Comnenus dynasty. As emperor, Alexius stabilized the government of the empire. He was also Emperor during the First Crusade. Alexius is the subject of a biography by his learned daughter, Anna Comnena. Occupations: EmperorCrusade WitnessMilitary Leader Places of Residence and Influence: Byzantium (Eastern Rome) Important Dates: Born: 1048Crowned: April 4, 1081Died: Aug. 15, 1118 About Alexius Comnenus Alexius was the third son of John Comnenus and a nephew of Emperor Isaac I. From 1068 to 1081, during the reigns of Romanus IV, Michael VII, and Nicephorus III, he served in the military; then, with the help of his brother Isaac, his mother Anna Dalassena, and his powerful in-laws the Ducas family, he seized the throne from Nicephorus III. For more than half a century the empire had suffered from ineffective or short-lived leaders. Alexius was able to drive the Italian Normans from western Greece, defeat Turkic nomads whod been invading the Balkans, and halt the encroachment of the Seljuq Turks. He also negotiated agreements with Sulayman ibn QutalmÃ ¯sh of Konya and other Muslim leaders on the empires eastern border. At home he strengthened the central authority and built up military and naval forces, thus increasing imperial strength in portions of Anatolia (Turkey) and the Mediterranean. These actions helped stabilize Byzantium, but other policies would cause difficulties for his reign. Alexius made concessions to powerful landed magnates which would serve to weaken the authority of himself and future emperors. Although he maintained the traditional imperial role of protecting the Eastern Orthodox Church and repressed heresy, he also seized funds from the Church when necessary, and would be called to account for these actions by the ecclesiastical authorities. Alexius is well known for appealing to Pope Urban II for help in driving the Turks from Byzantine territory. The resulting influx of Crusaders would plague him for years to come.
Thursday, March 5, 2020
Hexapods Are a Diverse Group of Six-Legged Arthropods Hexapods are a group of arthropods that include more than one million described, species, most of which are insects, but a handful of which belong to the lesser-known group Entognatha. In terms of the sheer number of species, no other family of animals comes close to the hexapods; these six-legged arthropods are, in fact, over twice as diverse as all other vertebrate and invertebrate animals combined. Most hexapods are terrestrial animals, but there are some exceptions to this rule. Some species live in aquatic freshwater habitats such as lakes, wetlands, and rivers, while others inhabit coastal marine waters. Hexapods Avoid Sub-Tidal Marine Areas The only habitats that hexapods avoid are sub-tidal marine areas, such as oceans and shallow seas. The success of hexapods in colonizing land can be attributed to their body plan (especially the strong cuticles covering their bodies that provide protection from predators, infection and water loss), as well as their flying skills. Another successful attribute of hexapods is theirÃ holometabolous development, a mouthful of a term which means that juvenile and adult hexapods of the same species are very different in their ecological requirements, immature hexapods using different resources (including food sources and habitat features) than the adults of the same species. Hexapods Are Vital But Also Pose Many Threats Hexapods are vital to the communities in which they live; for example, early two-thirds of all flowering plant species rely on hexapods for pollination. Yet hexapods also pose many threats. These small arthropods can inflict vast crop damage and are known to spread numerous debilitating and fatal diseases in humans and other animals. The body of a hexapod is made up of three sections, a head, a thorax, and an abdomen. The head has a pair of compoundÃ eyes, a pair of antennae, and numerous mouthparts (such as mandibles, labrum, maxilla, and labium). The Three Segments of Thorax The thorax consists of three segments, the prothorax, the mesothorax, and the metathorax. Each segment of the thorax has a pair of legs, making for six legs in all (the forelegs, the middle legs, and the hind legs). Most adult insects also possess two pairs of wings; the forewings are located on the mesothorax and the hind-wings are attached to the metathorax. Wingless Hexapods Although most adult hexapods have wings, some species are wingless throughout their life cycles or lose their wings after a certain period before adulthood. For example, parasitic insect orders such as lice and fleas no longer have wings (although their ancestors of millions of years ago did have wings). Other groups, such as the Entognatha and Zygentoma, are more primitive than classic insects; not even the ancestors of these animals had wings. Many hexapods have evolved alongside plants in a process known as coevolution. Pollination is one example of a coevolutionary adaptation between plants and pollinators in which both parties benefit. Classification Hexapods are classified within the following taxonomic hierarchy: Animals Invertebrates Arthropods Hexapods Hexapods are divided into the following basic groups: Insects (Insecta) - There are more than one million species of insects that have been identified, and scientists estimate that there may be many millions more species yet to be named. Insects have three pairs of legs, two pairs of wings and compound eyes.Springtails and their relatives (Entognatha) - The mouthparts of springtails, such as the two-pronged bristletails and the proturans (or coneheads), can be retracted within their heads. All entognaths lack wings. Edited on February 10, 2017, by Bob Strauss
Monday, February 17, 2020
Use emotional intelligence for your benefit - Essay Example With emotional intelligence, an individual is able to avoid troubles that would otherwise be detrimental to their physical and psychological health. Precisely, emotional intelligence has numerous benefits to individuals who posses and practice the value. Emotional intelligence helps in enhancing self-awareness, which refers to the ability to understand oneself in terms of strengths and weaknesses. Understanding ones strengths is important in a helping one direct their energies towards the most appropriate and beneficial commitments. Exploitation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths is important considering that it may lead to self-actualization, which entails achieving the best out of oneself (AlDakeel 52). Understanding oneÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses is also important in helping an individual develop proper techniques to counter the effects of particular weaknesses. Ability to manage effects of particular weaknesses may help an individual in avoiding stresses that may result from the effects. Effective self-awareness brought by emotional intelligence can help an individual to gain skills to detect, identify and manage situations that likely to cause discord to one. AlDakeel mentions that emotional intelligence is also attributable to effective emotional management (52). Individuals who have high levels of emotional intelligences are able to detect and understand particular emotions together with their likely consequence. Understanding emotions before causing unwanted effects also train individuals about techniques and measures to manage particular stressful situations. The ability to manage emotions create ample room for understanding others, and helping one guide others into sober negotiations to resolve issues that are controversial. In so doing, emotional intelligence will be assisting in the process of effective decision-making. Improved social awareness is another benefit derivable from emotional intelligence. Social
Monday, February 3, 2020
Main idea and themes of Raphael's 'Madonna of the Meadow' - Essay Example Actually, the triangle represents the unity and responsibilities of the trinity, which is symbolized by the three edges of the triangular shape. In the short film, the painter has passed his message of religious belief to other for centuries since his demise. Apparently, the painter has proved an important point: that painting is one of the ways to pass a message. Moreover, a message passed through painting can indeed last long. Even though there has been an evolution in terms of painting with the modern technology threatening to push others into oblivion, RaphaelÃ¢â¬â¢s work is still significant. Additionally, Raphael seeks to show the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s commitment to assisting humankind. The red color is used to signify the inevitable shedding of ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s blood while the cross is interpreted as the subsequent death. Finally, the painting of the woman represents Mary, the mother Christ whose are eyes are fixed Christ, the expected savior (Weyant, p.4). In short, Raphael seeks to express his religious affiliation through
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Pantaloons Retail India Limited Future Group focuses most in the retail segment and most of its businesses are built around the same. Future Groups retail network operates 1,000 stores for more than 200 million Indians in 73 cities and 65 rural locations across the country in 16 million square feet of retail space. Some of the most popular retail chains of India like Pantaloons (chain of fashion destinations), Big Bazaar (hypermarket chain), Food Bazaar (supermarket chain) and Central (chain of seamless destination malls) Brand Factory, Planet Sports, ALL, Top 10 and Star and Sitara are managed by Future group. Indias most popular online shopping portal www.futurebazaar.com is also owned by the Future Group. Home building and home improvement products and services are also led through the groups formats, like the Home Town (large-format home solutions store), Collection i (formats specialized for home furniture and home furnishing) and Furniture Bazaar and consumer electronics through eZone and Electronics Bazaar. Aadhaar, Indias leading rural retailing chain has a presence in more than 65 rural locations. It acts as a complete solution provider for the Indian farmer. Pantaloons Retail India Limited Pantaloon Retail (India) Limited is one of the leading retailers in India. Mr. Kishore Biyani, is the founder and is famously known as Indias King of Retail. Pantaloon has revolutionized the retail fraternity. With its headquarter in Mumbai, Pantaloons operates multiple retail formats in value and lifestyle segment. Pantaloons plans to increase its retail space to 30 million sq. ft. by 2011. PRIL is sub-divided into: Pantaloons Big bazaar Food Bazaar Fashion Station All Blue sky E-zone Collection 1 Home town Central Mall 2001 Indias first hypermarket chain Big bazaar is launched 2002 Food bazaar, a supermarket chain is launched 2006 Future groups financial arm, Future capital holdings launches two real estate funds Pantaloons High fashion family department, geared toward Indian middle and upper classes. In 2005, pantaloons rolled out a new merchandise and brand communication campaign to position itself as fashion trendsetter appeal to Indias youth. Central Mall It is positioned as a place for shopping, eat and enjoying. Big Bazaar Big Bazaar hypermarket concept was started in 2007 by PRIL. It was designed to integrate elements of an Indian bazaar with recent retailing features like parking of vehicles, AC shopping environment and privilege of replacing merchandise. Food Bazaar The first outlet of Food Bazaar opened in June 2002, within a Big Bazaar store, six month later the chain had grown to 42 outlets: 18 stand alone. Future Groups main businesses are : E-commerce Futurebazaar.com, Pantaloons website has changed the e-commerce business in India. A wide range of products are made available at affordable prices. PC World has named the website as the Best Indian Website for 2007 in the Shopping category. Food In the food section, a lot of options are available like Food Bazaar Chain of large super markets Brew Bar Its a beer bar CafÃ © Bollywood -Its a eateries chain which is PAN India Chamosa Snack counter Sports Bar A Bistro which is dedicated to the sports world Fashion Varieties of options are available in this section like Top 10, Central, Blue Sky, Etam, Fashion Station, Gini, Jony, Navaras and ALL. Home Electronics Furniture store called Collection i Electronic goods and appliances store called Electronics Bazaar Electronics Items store called e-zone Home furniture store called Furniture Bazaar One destination for all home needs called Home Town Leisure Entertainment A family entertainment center called Bowling Co. A store offering gaming options from bowling, pool, video games to bumper cars called F 123 Wellness Beauty Health Village Its a yoga center as well a spa Star Sitara: A beauty salon for men and women Tulsi Allopathic, homeopathic and ayurvedic medicinal products are provided Turmeric Beauty products like colour cosmetics, fragrances, herbal and specialty skin items, hair products and bath accessories are offered. Books Music Depot It offers stationary, CDs and books Major Achievements of Pantaloon Retail 2007 International Retailer of the Year 2007 Emerging market Retailer of the Year 2007 According to Hewitt Best Employers Survey Best Employers in India (Rank 14th) 2006 Best Managed Company in India (Mid-cap) for the year 2006 Image Retail Awards for Best Value Retail Store, Best Retail Destination, and Best Food Grocery Store. Retail Black Hole Model The Black hole model is also known as The Retail EST Model. It was developed by J.C Williams Group. According to this model a retailer can win if he is the best in one of the several retail offerings i.e to say that the company is clearly positioned in one or more preferred locations to win and hence they are the strategic differentiators. The losers gravitate to central position, are not best at anything and are sucked into the black hole of retailing We have a store opening virtually every fortnight; I have lost count now of how many I have opened Kishore Biyani Big Bazaar A paradigm shift to the Modern Retail Big Bazaar is a unit of Pantaloon Retail (India) Ltd and caters to the Great Indian Middle Class. It is like an Indian bazaar or mandi or mela, the environment created by traders to give shoppers a sense of moment. The personality of big bazaar is one of an entity being authentically no-frills. The personality of the brand is self expressed by its tagline Is se sasta aur accha kahin nahi It sells a variety of merchandise at affordable rates, the prices of which it claims are lowest in the city. Usually the items are clubbed together for offers as on the lines of Wal-Mart and Carrefour, offer weekend discounts and works on the same economy model as Wal-Mart and has considerable success in many Indian cities and small towns. Food Bazaar format was added as Shop-In-Shop within Big Bazaar in the year 2002. Big Bazaar and Food Bazaar blend the look, feel and touch of Indian Bazaar with modern retail concepts of choice, convenience and quality. PRODUCT MIX TARGET AUDIENCE Higher and upper middle class customers are the target segment of Big bazaar. Another preferred customer segment is the young and growing population of the country. Big bazaar primarily targets the women folk and home makers who they feel are the primary decision makers. CORE COMPETENCIES Product range consisting of more than 20,000 products. Has a strong supply chain spanning one thousand five hundred cities and towns in India. Big bazaar has tie ups with world leaders in logistical services. Big bazaar has created a helpline for solving the queries of customers. Offers manufacturers guarantee as opposed to sellers guarantee. Good quality at reasonable cost. STRATEGIES: Minimize retailing cost. Minimize operating expenses by employing fewer floor staff -single person for every 500 sq ft. Keep furniture cost to minimum. Cut down expenses related to sourcing by almost 25-30%. Increasing the overall efficiency of logistics by creating mother-hubs all across India for the purpose of sourcing products from regional/local vendors. Slashing channel cost by up to 25%. Economizing Shelf Space Dealing with unsold stock in an effective manner. Ensuring enough pull to snatch away customers from the neighbourhood. Introducing the concept of todays price wherein a products is chosen on a daily basis and sold at lower than usual price. Big Bazaars New Marketing Strategy: A new marketing strategy, based on guerrilla marketing has been launched by big bazaar. The guerrilla force is divided into small groups to selectively attack the target at its weak points. As a part of this strategy Future group has come up with three catchy and cocky advertisement campaigns. Keep West-a-Side. Make a smart choice! Shoppers! Stop. Make a smart choice! Change Your Lifestyle. Make a smart choice! STRATEGIC ANALYSIS SWOT analysis of Big Bazaar PEST ANALYSIS Political and Legal Factors: A stable government at the centre creates an encouraging investment climate Problems of getting subsidy from Octrai and on different taxes like land, water taxes A less complicated taxation structure(GST) on the horizon. Problems regarding taking over properties and real estate. Easing restrictions on FDI by the government leading to easier import of foreign consumer goods, thereby bringing variety to the Indian market place. Economical: India is one of the fastest growing economies, next only to China (7-7.5% GDP growth rate). Retail Industry to grow leaps and bounds by 2015 due to the consumption driven economy of the country. Increase in the percentage contribution of the service sector to GDP. Increased emphasis on infrastructural growth in the current 5 year plan will help reduce some of the bottlenecks in the retail segment. Socio-Cultural Factors: Increase in Nuclear families Increase in working womens proposition Life style changes Shift in Product and service preferences Increase in Young population giving the country a demographic advantage Technological: Technological development for fast billing and the service Better applications of information technology in the modern retail industry, like in supply chain management, store management, point of sale and customer relationship management Porters Five Forces Model 7 P Analysis of Big Bazaar Product There is a wide range of products on offer at Big-bazaar, ranging from apparels, food, farm products, furniture, child care, toys, etc. Products of all the major brands are available at Big Bazaar. A lot of in house brands (private labels) are also promoted by Big Bazaar. Price The tag-line of Big Bazaar is Is se sasta aur accha aur kahin nahi. The model on which Big bazaar works is one of economies of scale. Maximum Market Share (market penetration pricing) is the major objective of pricing at Big bazaar. Place Big-bazaar has a pan India presence with more than seventy-five outlets spread across fifty cities. Big Bazaar has presence in almost all the major Indian cities. Kishore Biyani is very aggressive when it comes to expansion plans of Big bazaar. As per Biyani, the cost of real estate should preferably be less than 5% of total sales of store if one wants to provide maximum benefit to customers. Securing spaces before other retailers join in has been a strategic decision of Big bazaar which has resulted in cost-saving. Promotion Many novel cross sell and upsell strategies have been developed by Big bazaar in Indian retail market. Big Bazaar uses various promotional techniques such as saal ke sabse saste teen din, Future card, Shakti card, using M.S.Dhoni as brand ambassador, Exchange offers such as junk swap offer, POP promotions. Print media, TV, Radio (FM) and road-side bill-boards are some of the many means used by Big bazaar for advertizing and effective communication. People People are considered to be one of the key assets in any organization and their importance is even more profound in the service sector. Big bazaars staff possesses some salient features such as: The staff is well trained for modern retail. Innovative thinking among the employees is encouraged at Big bazaar. Multiple payment counters, availability of stores staff for keeping baggage and presence of security guard at every gate. Process Some of the salient features of dispatch and purchasing area of goods include : Trolleys are available for carrying purchased items sufficient nos of counters for easy check-out are present. Information hoardings/banners for efficient identification of items at store Physical Evidence It deals with the final deliverable or the exhibit of written facts. The staff has standardized dress code to improve the overall appearance of the store (atmospherics). FINANCIAL ANALYSIS of PRIL PRIL Profit and Loss Statement Interpretation Total revenues have constantly been on the rise. This is partly due to the increasing sales resulting from aggressive expansion plans (opening up of outlets) of PRIL. PAT has also been on steady rise though it has flattened a bit in recent years probably due to higher operating costs, inability to transfer the increased cost to the customer etc. EPS has also been on a steady rise apart from a single occasion in 2007 when it went down. The reason could be a rights issue or other similar action leading to equity dilution. The return on capital employed has been decreasing YoY. This could because of concern for the company. The debt equity ratio has not been too volatile and has always been below 2 which is an indication of sound financial status of the company. Aggressive Marketing: Promotions The promotional activity of the company, which says Nobody Sells Cheaper and Better! has differentiated Big-Bazaar (as a brand) in the minds of the customer. The punch-line has made its place in minds of customer. As the competition is becoming stiff in the market the activities conducted by the company are unique, that have brought fruitful result to the company. Among them sales Promotions is one of the leading activity or unique among all other activities has high influence on the customer walk-in. As sales promotions is the major force for Big-Bazaar, Big Bazaar take it very seriously especially during festivals special occasions by focussing aggressively on psychological emotional promotion strategies as per the demographic profile of the various consumers. About 60-70% of shopping for apparel, consumer durables, and home furnishing, among other things, happen during festivals. At least 40-50% takes place during the peak festival season, between September and November. According to Ashni Biyani, 23, a team is set up six months ago comprising experts on Indian mythology and religion, retail and even an expert on days, seriously targeted one-third of the 150 auspicious days in the Hindu calendar. They map all the communities in India on how they shop and how these calendars work. They focus to understand intuitively, their customs, their rituals, adding that this is the part of a larger strategy to engage customers and to attract that India which lives in the deep-rooted communities. Sabse Saste 3 Din: The best watershed for brand Big Bazaar was the introduction of the Sabse Sasta Din in January 2005, when the Indian Republic Day holiday was utilized to make sure that hordes of consumers descended on all Big Bazaars across the country to buy all kinds of household items cheap. There were scenes of customers actually vigorously fighting over items in-store long queues were seen in the store. Big Bazaar like previous years, attracted large crowds during its three day sales event called Sabse Saste 3 Din organised to celebrate the Republic Day. Depending on the results, the event is sometimes extended to 5-6 days as it happened in 2008. The promotional event being organised by Big Bazaar every year has assumed great significance over the years. A large number of customers look forward to this event as hefty discounts on a range of products are offered to the customers in partnership with the retail chains vendors on this occasion. This is, perhaps, the biggest sales event being organised by any retailer in the country. Big Bazaar, which sold merchandise worth Rs 140 crores in 2007, garnered revenues of over Rs. 280 crores during the year 2008 the growth still continues unexpectedly. As mentioned by Kishore Biyani, the whole focus is low margins pushing volumes aggressively during these times which make the Big-Bazaar stick to its core Brand-Personality. Wednesday and Weekend Bazaar: One of the most popular events Wednesday Bazaar presents terrific offers and irresistible discounts on majority of the products. The Concept was to aim at giving the homemakers the power to save the most on this day of the week. Even on weekends when the footfall is the highest, eye-catching offers and discounts are promoted. The weekend promotions differentiated from the Wednesday bazaar in terms of the offers cross-selling and not on reducing the price of a particular product. This way they were able to differentiate both the concepts focus on avoiding confusion while promoting it to the consumers and also attract different type of consumers during these durations. Special event promotions: Maha Bachat Sale: Big Bazaars incorporates such as on Independence day by having Maha Bachat Sale which did a business of 1.5 crores in its Bangalore store alone. Maha Bachat focuses on further reducing the price as compared to the Wednesday Bazaar. Also on auspicious occasions such as Akshaya Tritiya which again did a business of 150Cr on a single day in Mumbai Ahmedabad last year. An event offering discounts, benefits and privileges to senior citizens were created and promoted on the Senior Citizens Day. Monthly Bachat Bazaar: Big Bazaar understands clearly the habits of Indian consumers. In Monthly Bachat Bazaar the prices are reduced at the start of every month in order to target those consumers who bulk purchase the products and especially the commodities every month. Price Challenge Campaign: Reinforcing Big Bazaars USP of value proposition, Is se sasta aur accha kahin nahi scheme was launched. The challenges promise to offer twice the price difference, if the cost of any of the item found in the store is found to be higher than the market price. This doesnt mean that the consumer actually go to other shops in order to compare the prices, but due to this challenge of Big-Bazaar, the consumers had more faith trust on the Big-Bazaar and hence were confident seeing the confidence level of Big-Bazaar which again built a strong brand differentiation of Big-Bazaar for low pricing. Exchange Offers: This promotion primarily focused on letting people disposing off their junk and to gain something out of it in return i.e. Bring anything old take anything new. They could exchange their products and shop from a huge spectrum of discounted products. This gave the motivation factor to consumers to give their old belongings for something worth hence their old is not getting waste or is unvalued. Since the Indian consumers are very much value conscious, this strategy worked out very well. Big-Bazaar also made it sure that the campaign is actually not fooling the consumers around and is actually giving the desired value focusing on the fact that faith thrashed is never recovered in India. In- Store Communications: To ensure that no one misses out on an opportunity to gain from special offers, service boys ferry around a trolley with the product inside, announcing the scheme. Not only is this entertaining it also helps customers pick up the product from the trolley instead of walking up to the rack where it is on display. Language Customization: To make sure that non-English speaking customers dont feel alienated, the communication is also conducted in the local language. The communication is always unambiguous and direct. The Power of One Campaign: This initiative encourages customers to add One Rupee to their bill towards donation to a social cause. Big Bazaar makes an equal contribution and donates the entire proceeds to an NGO called Save the Children India. This is a selfless body which has been working for the welfare of children from marginalized sections of society. Corporate campaign: Big Bazaar has recently launched a corporate campaign which revolves around a family having a great time together. The brand anthem Khushiyon se Bhari Jholi connects with the customers at an emotional level positioning Big Bazaar as part of the happy moments. Future Cards: Specifically for Big Bazaar outlets these credit-cum-loyalty card which offer customers a slew of discounts and benefits across Future Group stores are co-branded with ICICI Bank. Customers receive four loyalty points for every Rs 100 spent at Future groups retail stores and one loyalty point for every Rs 200 spent outside the groups retail stores. This creates a vicious cycle for the customers to repeat their purchases and is especially done by the consumers during special occasions. School Jao Khushi Khushi Providing Discounts School related requirements accessories like school bags, water bottles, lunchboxes, shoes etc. Promotions include: Pencil Case for purchase of above Rs 500. Free shopping trip worth Rs 1000/- for Sending ones experience of the Best day that you had in school the most humorous the best one is selected as a winner and to avail the offer. Lucky draw for the lucky kids shop for Rs 1,000 above, drop in your kids name into the drop box 10 lucky kids were provided with the offer 30% off on an NIIT course Motivational offer for Kids: Shop for Rs 500 or above, Parents are told to drop in the kids painting, the best painting is sponsored for an art course. Doston ke saath khushiyon manao Individual are invited with friends more the merrier shopping with 1 friend entitles the individual with 10% discount, coming with two friends get 20% discount etc on the total bill. Friendship band to every walk-in A friend indeed -people were told to drop their best friends name in the drop-box and in lucky draw the winner could win the major prize A Car!! Special treatment emotional connect for the individual his/her friend -free massage, tattoos, horoscope etc were provided for purchases above Rs 500/- above during the friendship day. Diwali Dhamaka: This campaign especially remains open for longer duration Huge discounts are seen over the board If purchase is above Rs 300/- two pairs of diya were provided to the customers Tie up with known mithaiwala: if one purchases above 1000/- people can avail discounts of 45% or above on the mithai purchased from that mithaiwala. Motivating the home made mithai recepies: Purchasing goods worth Rs 500 above, females were pulled to send the recipe of their secret mithai the best judged recipe gets a complete set of Sanjeev Kapoors cook-books Diwali Manao Abroad winning through lucky draw on purchases worth Rs 1,000 or above. Christmas Joy: Across the board discounts. Big Bazaars special surprise Christmas gift on purchase of over Rs 1000/- or above. Christmas-Card Design Contest: Design next years Christmas card for children and a gift voucher worth Rs. 500 were given to the best card winner. Big Bazaar Christmas party focussing on points vouchers through festival focussed games. Happy-Hours: All the discounts/offers were hiked up in a fixed hr of a day eg: Buy X and get Rs 10 off on that day will become Rs 15 off. Mystery-Shopper: Everyday, one person is tagged as the mystery shopper i.e. a) 100th person walking through the door wearing all red b) 1st person walking through the door wearing all red These person gets the discount of 50% on the total bill. Apke kismat mein hai khushi: Lucky is happy Based on scratch card Get all that you pick in 60 seconds till reaching the billing counter Assured gift for the bulk takers: Choose a gift from the listed items if the bill is above 1000/- This is used especially to push the non-moving goods which is usually put in the listed free gift items. Banto khushiyan har ek ke sang: Social causes Khilone se khushi bate Toy drop box was set in the big-bazaar store and the concept was promoted to ask for the toys from the families then the toys were sent to the social organisations working for underprivileged childrens. This has helped the underprivileged, generate goodwill, and have also attracted the floor traffic to store at the large scale. Supporting a charity Support through charity: Donation to the charity on the individuals name for purchasing above a specified amount. Customers were given an ornament with his or her name on it to hang signifying the donation by the individual. Advertisements: Advertising for Big-Bazaar is an essential component of brand building. The advertisement focusing on brand building of Big-Bazaar is done through various ways, Some of the techniques applied are: Tag Line: One of the key components of Big Bazaar is its Tag Lines. Designed according to the demographic profile of customers in order to get connected easily with simple one-liners. The catch liners includes Chane ke bhaw kaaju, Stall ke bhaw balcony etc. Holistic Advertisement: Promotes the brand and creates awareness among people. It is not targeted at promoting each store but only creates an image of Big-Bazaar as low-cost shopping option. The store has advertised through TV, road-shows and also started reality show typed promotional campaign The Big Bazaar Challenge Promotions like Sabse Sasta Din is very successful strategy to get footfall. Print-Ads: Just before the launch of any new schemes Big-Bazaar spends heavily on advertisements in print media especially newspapers. This is done in order to create a buzz about the big-bazaar brand its upcoming schemes. TV-Ads: various channels are utilized properly, also as per the demographics cultural channels the schemes, promotions especially the common brand tag-line is aired in order to create top of the mind awareness Road side Advertisements: As a brand building exercise, big-bazaar displays bill-boards in prime locations as per the target people. Focus is more on the phrases which is targeted to the needs of the customers as per the market conditions at that particular point of time. Radio-Ads: The major focus through radio ads is in Tier-12 cities. And the prime emphasis is given on radio ads for promotions in order to inform customers for all the new happenings schemes at Big-Bazaar. Fashion-Shows: The latest innovation of the Indian iconic brand is FASHION @ BIG BAZAAR Desh Badla, Bhesh Badlo. In order to make an effort to take the Fashion to the masses, a three-day fashion show was organized by Big-Bazaar on the streets of Bandra, Mumbai. Brand Endorsement by Celebrity: For marketing and advertising its brand name, value endorsement co-branding is used by Big Bazaar. Earlier Himesh Reshammiya Sanath Jaisuriya was associated with Big-Bazaar. Also, recently the current campaigns are being associated promoted with the Indian cricket ODI captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni. Communication through Media: Heavy spending is carried out for proper position of Big Bazaar through the different mediums. Paper advertisements are released just before the launch of any new scheme, billboards are displayed on prime locations, frequent TVCs are aired in prime time in various Indian channels for the mass, advertisements on FM channels about the current happenings are aired etc. Below the Line Promotion: Coupon, discount, more of the product at normal price, gift with purchase, competition, and prizes, money back offer, exchange offer, special occasion. Big Bazaar, in association with Star India Pvt Ltd, has launched a collection of designer ethnic wear under the brand Star Parivaar. Above the Line Promotion: Advertisements in Newspaper, TV, Internet (own website which give online shopping service), Partnership with Bigfilx, Big FM 92.7. Aggressive Pricing Strategy The tag-line is Is se Sasta aur accha aur kahin nahi make Big-Bazaar to differentiate itself from competitors in terms of only pricing the value at that price. Hence it makes it very important for the Big-Bazaar to always focus on the its pricing strategies to keep the prices always low compared to the competitors whatever the market, economy or the external conditions is. They work on the model of economics of scale. There pricing objective is to get Maximum Market Share. The various pricing techniques used at Big Bazaar are: EDLP Every Day Low Pricing: Big-Bazaar as a brand is differentiated through low pricing strategies. Hence it promises delivers the lowest available price without stressing on coupon clipping, discount promotions waiting time, or comparison shopping. Promotional-Pricing: Low interest rate financing is being offered by Big-Bazaar. Psychological discounting (Rs. 99, Rs. 49, etc.) strategy is used as a promotional tool. Special Event pricing (Close to Diwali, Gudi Padva, and Durga Pooja) is also the prime focus of big-bazaar for the reasons mentioned in the previous topic. Value-Pricing: Big-Bazaar sets selling prices on the perceived value to the customer, rather than on the actual cost of the product, the market price, competitors prices, or the historical price. Differentiated Pricing: Also termed as Time pricing, i.e. difference in rate based on peak and non-peak hours or days of shopping. This again as a pricing technique is used in Indian retail, hence aggressively used by Big Bazaar. Psychological Pricing: In order to attract status-conscious customers and also to push status-consciousness among the middle-class people, psychological pricing concept was undertaken by Big-Bazaar which provided the best deal in the market for the products which are market-buzz-creators and highly engaging long-lasting products such as LCD TVs, Washing Machines etc. Bundling: In
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Consumer motivation and the implication on marketing Introduction: The main purpose of marketing is to create value for customers so as to help the company to be success. Therefore, it is very important for marketers to understand its customers, especially on what motivate customersÃ¢â¬â¢ consumption behaviors so as to establish good marketing strategies. In this report, it aims at analysis consumer motivations. Firstly, it will start with the description the term of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs as well as discuss different types if needs that consumers have as well as analysis the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s needs hierarchy and its implications.This is important for understanding customersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation since it is the basic demand of customers that promote their motivations. Secondly, it will mainly look at and understand the process of goal setting by consumers and then it will describe the process of the motivations which was embarked by unfulfilled needs and throughout the way of tension generation, driving, consumer behavior and goal generation.Thirdly, It will look at the motivation strength and Directions, which is mainly about the result of the motivation that create certain level of influence on consumers which induce them to create a certain strength of feeling to fulfilled such unfulfilled needs as well as the effect of the external factors which produce a influence that direct consumers to make decisions. Then, the motivation conflicts will be introduced which includes three main types that are the approach Ã¢â¬âapproach conflict, the approach-avoidance conflict as well as the avoidance-avoidance conflict and it will further discuss the implications on making market strategies.Finally, consumers involvement will be discuss, this is the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ response to their process of motivations and it can be helpful for marketers to evaluation the marketing performance on the influence of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation. 1. ConsumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs The term of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ needs is similar to the term of demand and want, which is mainly about a process or way that can satisfy each individual customers which have their unique history, learning experiences as well as their culture environment (Agrawal, 1989). It is different from consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ otivations, since the need is the intrinsic demand based on the nature or the experience and background of consumers, such as the need of food and drink as well as the need of entertainment. The need cannot be created by marketers; however, they can affect the purchasing behavior of customers through their influence on the motivating processes. The need can be seen as the precondition of the motivation progress, since the process of generate consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation is depending on if they have such need as well as if such need is realized. Generally, the needs can be classified as three types.The first one is the innate needs, which arise from the nature of human being For example; peop le need food, drink, air and shelter. These needs are necessary to maintain their lives and therefore, they are also termed as the biogenic needs. The second type of need is named as the psychogenic needs, which is relevant to the desire to be involved in the society and become a member of a culture. For example, the need of power, statuses as well as affiliation are subject to this category. The third one is called as the utilitarian or hedonic needs. This utilitarian need is a need for a tangible attributes of products as well as its durability.For example, consumers would like to buy a fuel economy car rather than a car which consume too much petrol. While the hedonic needs are subjective and experimental. For example, certain customers would like to consume milk of one particular brand rather than any others as they believe it is the best brand milk with high quality even through the price is higher and the products is of high homogeneous. One of the most important theories on n eeds is the MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s Hierarchy of needs theory, which is important for guiding marketers understanding the needs of different people and thus setting strategies to better influence their motivations.In MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, it formulated a hierarchy of needs and in each level, the specific needs was clarified. The bottom level of need in the hierarchy is the physiological needs, which is the most proponent of all the other needs, since, if these need cannot been met, the human body would simply cannot continue to function. Examples of such needs are the need of air, water and food which is requirement for survive and the need of clothing and shelter which is requirement of protections. The next level of needs is termed as the safety needs, which is about to satisfy the feeling of security by people.This includes the requirement of personal security, financial security, health and well-being as well as the Safety net against accidents or illness and their adverse impacts. Th e upper level of need is termed as social need. It can be described as the requirement of human to satisfy their feeling a sense of belongings and acceptance, which include the needs of friendship, intimacy as well as family. The second highest level of need is self-esteem, which is the need by human being to be respected and accepted by others.Generally, there are two types of esteem needs; the first one is the need for respect of others, such as the need for status, recognition, frame, prestige and attention. The other one is the need for self-respect, such as the need for strength, competence, mastery, self-confidence, independence and freedom (Maslow, 1954). The needs at the peak of the hierarchy are self-actualization. It is described as a Ã¢â¬Ëdesire as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becomingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Maslow, 1954).Which illustrate the desire for a person to have its own value is realized in the society. The implic ation of MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s needs hierarchy is magnitude for marketers. Firstly, it stated that humanÃ¢â¬â¢s need can be ranked and classified as different level and without the satisfaction of the lower level of needs; it would not create motivations for people to fulfill the needs ranked on higher level. Therefore, marketers should adopt strategies approaching to motivations which should specifies certain types of product benefits people might be searching for, which is depending on the level of needs they are searching for. . Motivation process and goal setting process The term of motivation refers to the processes that cause Ã¢â¬Ëpeople to behave as they doÃ¢â¬â¢ (Runyon and Steward, 1987). Generally, it arises when the consumer realized that his or her need was not satisfied or he or she recognized a need that has never been recognized before. The process of motivation begins at the state of tension which result in the unfulfilled needs or when new needs were activated. Duri ng this stage, consumers would try to find some ways to reduce or eliminate such tension.After the needs were recognized and the tensions were generated, consumers will come into the process of goals setting. This process can be described as transferring the intangible feeling of demand and desire to the specific, measureable, attainable and realistic subjects (Runyon and Steward, 1987). For example, the lacking of water in the body of consumer would create a tension which is an undesirable feeling of thirsty, then the goal of consumer would be eliminate the bad feeling due to lack of water.Another example is that you feel short of confidence when you working in a position which needs high degree of some specific knowledge, this undesirable tension of short of confidence might induce you to find some way of gaining knowledge and make yourself more confident. After the goal was setting, consumers will formulating a goal intension, such as buying a bottle of juice or water or a decisi on on take participate in part time study in universities.Then an action planning is needed to specify the approach of achieving the goal, this is a more detail projects for each consumer, such as what kind of drinks and which brand should be chosen or when, which university should you take participate in and how long should it be enough to improve the knowledge. Then consumers need to make an action initiation and the process of control so as to attain the goal (Shail and Antoine, 2006). The implication on the understanding of the goal setting process on motivation is that this can be affected by various factors.An individual consumer would select certain goals rather than others based on factors such as his or her personal experiences, Physical capacity, the academic and culture background as well as the accessibility in the physical and social environment. Also, these factors can be further divided into two types. The first one is the intrinsic factor, which comes from the inside of the consumers themselves, such as the feeling of fitter, stronger and healthier as well as being capable of doing things that they never try before.While the extrinsically factors are those factor outside the consumers themselves. For example, people who are doing routine exercises for the sake of lose weight, gaining muscle or just looking better, even though they might not enjoy the process of exercise itself. Therefore, when considering consumer motivations, it is mainly the extrinsic factors that marketer need to make consideration and investigation so as to generate relevant marketing strategies which can drive consumers to matching their goals with the products that produced by the company.Further, it should also be noted that the process of goal setting by consumers are not purely based on motivations, rather, it also based on rationality. The rationality means consumers would select goals based on the overall objective criteria to satisfy their needs, those criteria incl ude the size, price or the weight. For example, when a consumer decides to buy a bag of flour, he will just choose the home-brand bag produced by the supermarket itself which is simply because this is the cheapest one. Also, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ selecting of certain goals is based on emotional motives which are quire subjective.For example, when certain consumers decides to buy a bag of flour, they would buy some particular brand no matter what the price is and how similar this products to the bag flour on other brands. This implicated that not all goals or not all customers can be motivated, since they also selecting goals based on rationality. therefore, when setting marketing strategies, it is important to understanding the customersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior as well as what kinds of goal setting process would be more rely on motivating factors.For example, when a company producing a products which is mainly selected under rationality, the company should pay more attention on factors such as the price, size as well as it utilities. While when producing a products which is mainly selected under motivation, the company should invest more on the appearance of the products, the loyalty of the brand as well as advertizing. 3. Motivation strength and directions The motivation strength is used to evaluate the degree or power of the motivation on the process of goal setting, after the goal is attained and the tension is reduced.In this stage, motivation is described as a sort of power that drives consumers to take actions to settle their goals (Koler, 1994). This is specifically importance when there is a conflict between different needs of consumers. For example, a consumer is desired to eat nice fat food while at the mean time, he or she wish to lose some weight and being looked better. These two demands are conflict with each other, and then the action by consumers would affected might the strengthens of emotion to achieve the goal, which means, if the consumer has a strong emotion of losing weight, then he or she is more likely to give up a nice dinner.Therefore, it can be found that maintain a certain level of motivation is important for marketer as well, since the competitors are also performed on the market and trying to affect the purchasing decisions on consumers. Marketer should ensure that the strength of motivation on the products is strong enough so as to attract a group of loyal customers can maintain the share on the market. Another important term on the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation is motivation direction. As mentioned above, the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behaviors as well as their specific objective of satisfy a need is goal oriented.However, in many circumstance, there are many alternatives that can be used to satisfy the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ goals. Therefore, it is very important for marketers to enforcing effective strategies to convince consumers to purchasing their companies products. For example, when a customer decides to choose a transport to help him or her travel from Sydney to Brisbane, there are many alternatives such as travel by plane, on the sea or driving by him or herself. Even when he or she decided to take the plane to the destination, there are many air companies as well as different class of seat that are available for his or her to choose.The directions can be either positive or negative and thus it will result in customersÃ¢â¬â¢ goal to be negative or negative. The positive goal is the one that forward to directly directing consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior. Customers driving by these goals will seek products that can help them to attain the goal. For example, a customer may willing to purchase nice flowers so as to make their home more beautiful. However, customers can also been driving by negative goals, as they have certain incentives to minimize the negative outcomes (Mower, 1987).For example, a car owner would like to purchase an expensive car insurance, since he want to insure that when there is an und esirable event or any problem on his car, the insurance company could help him solve it in a timely way. 4. Motivational conflicts It is not unusual that consumers have more than one goal and they are motivated by different sources of motivations at the same time. Therefore, in certain circumstances they may conflict of each other and thus, it requires consumers make decision on which goal they want to maintain the most.General, there are three types of motivational conflicts which are the Approach-Approach conflicts, Approach-Avoidance conflicts and Avoidance-Avoidance conflicts. In the Approach-Approach conflicts, a customer needs to choose one goal on the sacrifice of another. This is generally due to the constraint of budgets. For example, a customer may want to buy a book while at the mean time he or she wants to buy a video as well (Engel, Blackwell and Miniard, 1994). However, the amount of money that he or she has can only afford to satisfy one of the goals but not enough fo r both.Another reason for such conflict can be the shortage of time. For example, a student wish to attend a football matching in the afternoon but he also have a course at the same time which he is interested in as well. In this situation, only one goal can be achieved. Also, there is much other constraint which limits the ability of one consumer to achieve his or her goals at the mean time. on the sense of marketing strategies, there is no too much solutions for dealing with such dilemma, while marketer may through better understanding the customer behaviors as well as constraint so as to trying to avoid such conflict as possible.For example, football matches should be arranged on weekends as possible so as to avoid the conflict of time for students and those have to work regularly. The other one is the Approach-avoidance conflict. This conflict is the most general one and it affects marketing strategies the most. This conflict is usually arise from many products or services on th e market have both positive effects while at the mean time they can produce some negative consequences as well. For example, many consumers like to drink coffee; however, they may not get access to it since it may affect their quality.Another example is that many consumers like to eat nice fat food while at the mean time, they are fairing about getting weight due to the high calories. This conflict of human behavior is also termed as the cognitive dissonance, which arises from the premise that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives (Bagozzi, Gurhan and Priester, 2002). This cognitive dissonance can also create intensions as well, therefore, there is a potential for companies to produce relevant products and being purchased if this products can be well used to solve the problem of conflicts.This process is called as a process of cognitive dissonance reduction. This process is achievable because the cognitive dissonance is a conflict arise from logical inconsisten cy between two or more beliefs or behaviors (Bagozzi, Gurhan and Priester, 2002), this can be occurred when a customer make a choice on one of the two goods, which is the alternative to each other, Ã¢â¬Ëby choosing one product and not the other, the person gets the bad qualities of the chosen product and loses out on the good qualities of the non-chosen oneÃ¢â¬â¢.Another way of reducing such conflict is to create a new way to get away from such conflict which is not realized by the present customers. For example, companies may choose to produce caffeine free coffee which produces less effect on humanÃ¢â¬â¢s sleep quality. And also, companies can produce Ã¢â¬ËlightÃ¢â¬â¢, sugar free or fat free food which is tasty but with relatively fewer calories. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict As mentioned before, the goals of consumers might not be only satisfy some needs that they have realized, but also to reduce or eliminate certain unwanted situation that faced by consumers as well.Fo r example, consumers would like to pay insurance on their cars and thus when there are some problems on the car or accidents; they can save money and time for management them. However, the avoidance-avoidance conflicts occur when consumers can only choose one way for avoidance on the sacrifice of another (Wilkie, 1986). For example, customers may face the option of buy a new car which needs to pay a huge amount of money in once or to bear the bad quality of the older car as well as the expense of fixing.On the aspect of marketers, this situation is similar to the approach-approach conflict and the way of solving such problems is to trying to avoid such conflict. For example, companies which sold expensive products can prove credit or installation payment for customers, therefore, customers would more willing to purchase such goods without the painful from a lump sum payment and facing financing difficulties. The implication on marketing when considering the three conflict is that, s ince the conflict would produce certain tension on consumers, it can create needs for reducing or eliminating such tensions.While the main purposes for marketers are satisfy the demand of customers, therefore, it can also create purchasing opportunities by offering the possible solutions to those dilemmas. Further, by well understanding the existence of those conflicts, it can help to guide companies produce the Ã¢â¬Ëright productsÃ¢â¬â¢ which have minimum conflicts on consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ choice as well. 5. Consumer Involvement The process of consumer involvement is also an important aspect which is central to activating consumer motivates.This process can be defined as a process of combining the aspect the consumers, the products as well as the situation all together so as to determine the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to get access to related products information (Agrawal, 1989). This is a result of the process of goal setting and motivation, as when customers are cleared about t heir goals and purpose that can meet their needs, they will take more positive steps to get access to relevant products and pay attention to all relevant information.The degree of the efforts that customers want to pay on the products and information is relevant to their needs, goals, values as well as their already obtained knowledge. While the process of get access and evaluating such information is of particular importance for them to make purchasing decision and therefore, it is also very important for marketers to well understand it. Generally, consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement can be classified into three types based on their purpose as well as the degree of their attentions. The first one is the purchase involvement, which relate to the level of interest during the buying process.This is directly affecting the purchasing behavior of customers and thus, many promotions are aimed to increase the purchasing involvement of customers. The second one is the message response involvement which is mainly about the marketing communication. In the real marketing, there are many Medias that can transfer information to customers; however, they have different level of attraction for consumer involvement. For example, advertisement on television would create a low involvement. This is because customers are only need to be passively watching the information without any response.However, other activities such as sales promotion or product show conference would result in more positive responses. For example, many car companies would like to have their newly created cars be showed on some luxury shopping malls; this would result in more positive involvement from customers to get access to the information of their products. The third one is the ego involvement, which is relevant to consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ self-concept and it is usually independent from certain particular purchase situations (Foxall, 1994).The implications for marketers on consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement is that, throu gh consumers may differ due to the level of involvement on getting access to certain product information, marketer still can promote a positive actions to increase customersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement. This can be achieved by understanding some of the basic factors that increase or decrease attention of customer, the ease of receiving relevant information by customers as well as understanding customersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation to get access to and process those relevant information. Therefore, marketers can take different kinds of actions to improve customersÃ¢â¬â¢ improvement. 6. ConclusionAs discussed above, the process of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation is never be a simple term or definition, rather, it is an integrated process which leads to consumers achieving their goals and fulfilling their needs. The analysis of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation for marketer is important and it should be started at the point of analyzing the needs from consumers. As described by MaslowÃ¢â¬â¢s needs hierarch y which presented that humanÃ¢â¬â¢s needs are not incurred simultaneously, rather, they can be ranked in a pyramid and, without the fulfillment of the lower level of needs, the desire of fulfilling the needs at higher level would not be triggered.Therefore, marketers should pay attention on the needs in different level so as to ensure that what they are promoting is on certain level. Also, the process of motivation as well as the motivation strength and directions are analyzed as well, the process of motivation is triggered by the realization of needs, which create certain tension on consumers and they are drive to reduce or eliminate such tensions by embark certain behavior and setting more detailed goals to achieve the purpose.However, the wiliness of strength of motivation is used to evaluation the contribution of motivations as well as the inducement of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing behavior. Since the ways of satisfying a specific need of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ are always have many alternative, customersÃ¢â¬â¢ motivations can be directed by various factors. Further, it is very common that each consumer would have many goals that willing to be achieved at the same time, while some of them are conflict with each other.This situation was termed as motivation conflicts which can bring about many difficulties for marketers, while at the mean time, bring about many opportunities as well. Finally, it also discussed the importance for marketersÃ¢â¬â¢ understanding of customersÃ¢â¬â¢ involvement process, though this process is mainly about customers action on searching relevant products information. This is because many factors that exist in the world that can affect the degree of effort on searching the information as well as the ease of get access to relevant information.Reference list: Agrawal. M. L. 1989. Marketing of Hips and Lips. Business World. Bagozzi, R. P, Gurhan Canli and Priester, J. R, 2002. The social psychology of consumer behavioyr, Philadelphia , Open University Press. Engel. J. E, R. D. Blackwell and P. W. Miniard, 1994, Consumer Behaviour, 5th editions. The Dryden Press. Foxall, G. R, 1994. Sociology and the study of consumer behavior. American Journal of Economics and Sociology. Koler.P, 1994, Marketing Management Planning, Implementation and control. 6th edition. Prentice Hall of India. Maslow, Abraham, 1954. Motivation and personality. New York: Harper. Mower, J. C. 1987, Consumer Behaviour. Macmillan Publishing Co. Runyon, K. E and D. E. Steward, 1987. Consumer Behaviour. 3rd edition. Merill Publishing Co. Shail Patel and Antoine Schlijper, 2006, Models of Consumer Behavior. Unilever Corporate Research. Wilkie. W. L, 1986. Consumer Behaviour, John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Friday, January 10, 2020
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